Impacts of Neo-realism

One notable aspect about the neorealist filmmakers was that they were able to adopt a critical view of Italian society. They also focused their attention on the social problems afflicting the Italian society. Some of the social problems included post war poverty and unemployment. One contemporary filmmaker who appears to have borrowed heavily from the concept of neorealism is Satyajit Ray, a Bollywood star. His 1947 film, Pather Panchali, is neo-realist in its implications because it occurred not long after the Second World War when neo-realism was common in most of Europe. Some of the notable works after the period between 1943 and 1945 were by filmmakers such as Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, and Luchino Visconti. In addition, there was considerable input from former detainees of the Fascist regime. These former detainees were able to combine the desire for cinematic realism with the prevailing political, social, and economic themes.

The period between 1943 and 1945 is an important era in the history of Italian cinema. During this period, the concept of neorealism became prominent in the cinematic landscape of Italy. In addition, neorealism has resulted in significant impacts, not only on the Italian film industry, but also on movies in different parts of the world.  The emergence of neorealism occurred in the early 1940s after the deposition of the Mussolini’s Fascist regime near the end of the Second World War. During this time, international audience and filmmakers developed a significant interest in the Italian film landscape

Neorealistic actors preferred shooting their films in locations other than studio. In addition, they wanted their photography to have the grainy aspect, which is prevalent in most documentary films or newsreel. The idea of shooting films in location resulted from the unavailability of studio facilities during and immediately after the war. In addition, the filmmakers wanted to demonstrate to the world what was happening in the Italian countryside during the war. They felt that a studio environment was not an ideal way of creating awareness of the prevailing social problems in post-war Italy. In the film, Pather Panchali, Satyajit Ray injects the concept of neorealism by incorporating realistic scenes. Evidently, the film’s lack of the usual artificial sceneries that are common in Bollywood movies is a strong indication that the filmmaker has benefited greatly from his visit to Italy in the 1950s.


Risk Management

Risk Management

For every emergency assistance and recovery from a disaster, various bodies provide the required response. The Stafford act and presidential declaration are examples of such responses. Consequently, the act authorizes the delivery of technical, financial, logistical, and other forms of assistance to regions and localities during an occurrence of major disasters or emergencies. The presidential declaration, an incident of disaster, comes in two forms; emergency declarations and major disaster declarations. The president has the power to declare an emergency for any instance that affects a nation if he or she determines that there is a requirement of federal assistance. The local and state governments have the responsibility for protecting their citizens from an occurrence of disaster. Apart from offering the necessary protection, they assist citizens to recover from disasters through strategies such as relocation or financial aid. However, some disasters may be beyond the capabilities of the state and the local government.

Both Stafford Act and presidential declaration are useful in the scheme of responding to local disasters. After an occurrence of an emergency, the act responds by providing a framework for initial response and then collaborates with the affected states to perform a joint preliminary damage assessment. In addition, a presidential declaration under the Stafford Act makes it possible for the affected citizens to access disaster relief assistance. An example of a declaration that was useful to the citizens was the 2001 Pentagon terrorist attack and the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building. Federal emergency recovery programs have been overused by the states. The reason is that they are required to distribute aid to individuals, state, and the local governments after natural disasters. Due to this, some of its response to major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and wasteful. Because of the magnitude of catastrophic events following a major disaster, the program is not adequate for providing recovery.