# What are the branches of Statistics?

Statistics is an important subject that you should take up in school as it will help you with all your mathematics and all matters revolving around this area, especially when it comes to matters concerning mean, median, mode and frequency. A lot of students, however, face a lot of challenges when taking up statistics, as some may peg it to be a difficult discipline. Some students find help from tutors from famedwritings, a company that offer statistics homework services. It is really not a hard subject to understand and excel in all you have to do is open up your mind and listen keenly to what the course tutor is teaching. With that, you can rest assured that you will be able to get the best grades possible. There are basic concepts and principles in Statistics that you have to familiarize yourself with so as to ensure you are able to achieve this including the branches of Statistics.

Statistics is the science concerned with developing and studying methods for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and presenting empirical data. Statistics is a highly interdisciplinary field; research in statistics finds applicability in virtually all scientific fields and research questions in the various scientific fields motivate the development of new statistical methods and theory. In developing methods and studying the theory that underlies the methods statisticians draw on a variety of mathematical and computational tools. Basically, there are two main branches of Statistics which include: Inferential Statistics and Descriptive Statistics.

Descriptive statistics deals with the presentation and collection of data. This is usually the first part of a statistical analysis. It is usually not as simple as it sounds, and the statistician needs to be aware of designing experiments, choosing the right focus group and avoid biases that are so easy to creep into the experiment. While on the other hand, inferential statistics, as the name suggests, involves drawing the right conclusions from the statistical analysis that has been performed using descriptive statistics. In the end, it is the inferences that make studies important and this aspect is dealt with in inferential statistics. Most predictions of the future and generalizations about a population by studying a smaller sample come under the purview of inferential statistics. Most social sciences experiments deal with studying a small sample population that helps determine how the population in general behaves. By designing the right experiment, the researcher is able to draw conclusions relevant to his study.

It is important to note that once you are well conversant with the two branches of Statistics you will be able to handle the problems with a lot of prowess and from an informed point of view ultimately leading to the best outcome. You will also be able to make well informed decisions after assessing both the benefits and challenges that a particular situation could bring about. You will also be able to steer clear away from challenges as statistics assists you to foresee the future ultimately salvaging time and resources that would have otherwise been wasted.

# Similarities between Ray and Yaaba. Oedraogo

There are several similarities between Ray’s film and Idrissa Oedraogo’s 1989 movie, Yaaba. Oedraogo primarily focuses on the cultural perspective of his native Burkina Faso, which bears a similarity with Ray’s own depiction of the poor Bengali family. Second, Oedraogo uses the film to promote the ethos of cultural tolerance, which Ray describes at length in his film. Third, Yaaba is a popular film because it is based on the natural rural surroundings. For example, Oedraogo reveals tracts of desert and lush rainforests. The natural setting, just like in Ray’s movie, serves as a non-narrative technique. Yaaba is also symbolic of the hardships that the African peasants face in the hostile Sahel region, a fact that Ray constantly portrays in his depiction of the poor Bengali family.

In summary, there is a distinct connection between the Bollywood movie industry and the Italian-based neorealism. In particular, Ray’s film Pather Panchali bears multiple resemblances with other films from the neorealism era. Some of the common characteristics between Ray’s film and Italian neo-realistic productions include lack of commentary, distinct time frames, natural settings, lengthy and uninterrupted scenes, critical approach, open-space shooting, and lack of embellishments. Others salient similarities are similar framing and composition techniques and emphasis through multiple repetitions. Notably, other recent filmmakers have incorporated Ray’s approach to their films. For example, there are distinct similarities between Ray’s Pather Panchali and Idrissa Oedraogo’s Yaaba. Some of the notable similarities include scenery, cultural settings, and circumstances of the main characters

# Repetition in Neorealism

Neo-realists used the aspect of repetition to emphasize on important element in the movies. One of the ideological characteristic of Italian films was to promote a democratic spirit and emphasize on the value of the ordinary people. In addition, the filmmakers sought to develop a point of view in which they refused to concede to easy moral judgments. However, these elements may not have been evident to the audience without a running commentary or enhancement. Since the filmmakers must remain objective, the only way the audience would make sense from films was through repetitive actions. For example, in De Sica’s The Bicycle Thief, there are multiple scenes in which he repeatedly depicts Antonio Ricci, the main character, as a struggler whose work was to most movie posters. By repeating one scene several times, the audience can conclude that Ricci requires a bicycle to make his work easier. However, he and his wife, Maria, are too poor to afford one.

Similarly, Ray uses repetitions to highlight the plight of children in a socially diversified Indian society. The film is a reflection of the hardships that Apu endures as he grows up in an impoverished family environment. The filmmaker repeatedly highlights the surrounding in a subtle manner as a way of making it easier for the audience to understand. Ray also focuses repeatedly on the day to day children behavior without revealing with the hope that the audience can keep relating them with their immediate environments. While the scenes repetition does not lead to the overall advancement of the plot, Ray uses the non-narrative expression to typify the plight of typical Indians living in the throes of poverty.

# Neorealism in The Bicycle Thief

In neorealistic movies such as De Sica’s The Bicycle Thief, the filmmaker dealt with providing accurate information on social, political, and economic conditions in post-war Italy. In addition, the movie makers wanted to demonstrate the extent to which citizens suffered under the despotic Fascist regime of Mussolini. De Sica also wanted to expose the physical hunger and mental despair that were common themes in most countries in the world. He named the brand name of the stolen bicycle “Fides”, which denotes “faith”. By having it stolen, De Sica demonstrated that the faith that Italians had among themselves was lost. In order to provide a sense of realism to his movie, De Sica ensured that the run time for each story was natural and uninterrupted.

Similarly, Ray projects the Roy family in the rural areas as poor and suffering social anguish. The family lives a simple life and has no access to essentials such as telephones. In most scenes, the stories are complete and flow with minimal interruptions. For example, when Apu and Durga escape the harsh lives in the village, there is no interruption of the footage. The audience is able to follow the movement of the two from the moment they leave the village to the time they encounter a train. Thus, one can argue that the story times of Ray’s Pather Panchali are similar to those of other Italian-based neorealistic films. Most critics have identified the story time aspect as one of the greatest similarities between Ray’s film and other neorealism creations.

# Framing in Neorealism

Framing is also a significant aspect in neorealism. Framing resulted in a sense of realism and honesty in the film industry, which the audience had never experienced before. Cook and Bernink observed that “Aesthetically, the realism of the neorealism movement consisted principally of a commitment to the representation of human reality”. Thus, the indiscriminative framing of neo-realists provided the audience with an opportunity to see how Italy, once a beautiful pre-war country, was affected by the war. Similarly, Ray uses special framing effects to maximize the audience’s satisfaction and to inject a sense of objectivity in his film. Ray also makes no effort to objectify any particular scene, but leaves that task to the audience. For example, in the scene in which the train comes into and disappears from the frame, the camera remains static and does not pan to the receding locomotive. Instead, it remains in the same spot as before, showing plumes of smoke instead.

# The role of the frame in cinematic creations

The role of the frame in cinematic creations is to draw the audience’s attention to a specific aspect of a scene. Neorealistic moviemakers used a wide array of framings and composition to highlight certain aspects of their films. Since the settings of the neorealism movies are natural, it is important for producers to make the films captivating to the audience. According to Kasbekar (1996), the work of the neorealism artist entails allowing the audience to reflect and demonstrate indignation when they come into contact with reality. To achieve their neorealistic objectives, artists use enhanced framings and compositions.

Another key feature in neorealistic creations is the nature of deep space composition. Deep space composition entails the manner in which the photographers composes and frames images in various scenes. For example, filmmakers can utilize the deep space technique whenever they position important elements in the frame relative of each other. It is important to note that the central objects in deep space composition need not be in focus. In most neorealism films, the directors ensure that key objects appear in the frame, regardless of their location. For example, in Vittorio De Sica’s 1948 neorealism film, The Bicycle Thief, viewers can identify the main focus of the camera crew, despite them not being the focus. Similarly, Ray ensures that the main elements of a scene remain within the camera frame. For example, in the scene with the train, the main focus was the amazed gaze of Apu. Even after the train comes into view, the viewers can sense that Ray is trying to portray the extent of amazement by Apu and Durga. The main objective of this technique is to allow the viewers an opportunity to discover for themselves the overriding feature of a scene. The filmmakers would arguably ruin this benefit if they were to focus on one particular object because it would imply that the camera crew is deliberately trying to influence the perception of the viewers.

# Ray Filter

Like in most neorealism films, Ray does not filter out the natural sound of the wind in the film. For example, in the scene where Apu finds his sister sitting among the tall blades of grass, there is a distinct hum of the wind, providing a natural feel to the movie. To the viewers, the scene is so natural that one may develop and impression that no acting is taking place. Here, the aim of the neo-realist is to capture the objects in their natural environment. In addition, the concept of neorealism becomes evident in instances in which the targets are unaware that they are the focus of the camera lens. This way, the non-professional actors will act naturally without any hint of exaggeration (Bardwell 2012). Ray captures the concept of naturalism well, particularly when he depicts members of the poor Bengali family going through their tasks in the rural neighborhood. In addition, Ray incorporates more naturalism in his film by focusing on other distinct elements that bear similarities with neorealism. For example, his close shot of the train as it moves down the tracks is an indication of how keenly Apu and Durga are observing the moving object. After the train goes past the astonished children, the camera remains in the same position with its focus being the smoke that the train has left behind. In Bollywood films, camera crew does not linger too much on once scene. However, Ray is an exception to the modern breed of Bollywood filmmakers, and he is determined to follow the path of neorealistics.

The timing of the Pather Panchali is also rather apt since its settings are similar to those of neorealistic films. India gained independence in 1947 and experienced political strife in the following years. It was against this backdrop of anarchy and lawlessness that Ray produced his movie. Similarly, Italian neorealism movies have anarchy and social disorder as the main inspiration. As a key player in the Second World War under the leadership of the Fascist regime, Italy was on the brink of disintegration. These conditions were the perfect settings for neorealistic movie directors who felt the need to capture the state of suffering and hardships in the society (Fabe 2014). Similar neo-realist counterparts, Ray bass his movie on the state of anarchy in India in the 1940s. Most neorealistic films are representations of real-life situations and have little or no room for creativity or imagination. Consequently, Ray remains true to the natural approach of a typical neo-realist by depicting the actors in their most natural settings.

# Neorealism on Ray’s Work

To understand the overall influence of neorealism on Ray’s work, it is important to consider the economic and social state of Italy after the Second World War. The country was in ruins economically and moral turmoil was rampant. Most neorealistic filmmakers made efforts to capture the post-war effects by producing realistic films. The aim of producers such as Vittorio De Sica, Luchino Visconti and Roberto Rossellini was to make their films as real as possible. To achieve their realism objectives, the producers had to refrain from personalizing their films. Instead, they shot their work in natural locations as a way of representing the reality on the ground. In realism films, producers do not have time to embellish simple tasks (Bordwell 2012). Similarly, most of the scenes in Pather Panchali are simple and natural, devoid of the producer’s input. In contrast, the directors in most Bollywood films expend great efforts to make sure that each scene and part is as elaborate as possible. Consequently, Ray’s film appears as a documentary, which is the antithesis of what one may find in modern Bollywood films.

In most neorealism movies, Italian directors have a tradition of depicting the time of each scene or task (Fabe 2014). A significant example of this aspect of neorealism is evident in a scene in Vittorio De Sica’s neorealism film, The Bicycle Thief , in which a maid is grinding coffee (Fabe 2014). Majority of filmmakers, including the traditional Bollywood directors, do not portray the time of each scene or task in their movies or the length of time it takes to accomplish such tasks. However, Italian neo-realists believed that the beauty of everyday life lies in its sulky and humdrum nature (Vasudevan 2012). By incorporating the element of time in their movies, the directors made viewers appreciate the aspect of simplicity. Ray extensively adopts the indoctrination of time in his movie. There are timed long shorts in his work, which is unusual in the context of Bollywood movie industry. In particular, there are numerous scenes in which Ray ascribes long periods of time to focus on simple and routine activities of the poor Bengali family. One particular instance of a long focus is the train scene in which Durga gazes at the power line for exactly seventeen seconds before shifting his eyesight onto the tracks. In addition, there is no indication that the characters have telephones, which is indicative of the significant social divide between the rich and poor Indians. However, even if this aspect should be straightforward to viewers, Ray spends a significant amount of time to allow the audience to develop a natural course by refraining from providing a running commentary. In other words, there is no dialogue, which is one of the most compelling features in neorealism films.

# Neorealism in Pather Panchali

Evidently, Pather Panchali contains all the salient features of neorealism as epitomized by the prominent Italian movie maker, Zabattini. According to neorealism theorists, the filmmaker must always remain a passive and neutral observer of his or her own work. In other words, filmmakers should refrain from imposing their own individual interpretations on their works. They must always remain passive observers as the reality unfolds. Regardless of whether or not filmmakers are depicting misery or prosperity in their movies, they must uphold objectivity and allow logic to speak for itself. Even though Ray is unable to sustain the highest form of objectivity in his work, there are deliberate attempts to do so, particularly in scenes in which Durga and Apu are living in absolute squalor, and the filmmaker makes no effort to describe their hardships.

In a perfect enactment of neorealism, Ray also allows the viewers the benefit of watching the scene and forming their own subjective judgment and assessments. In other instances, Ray is unable to uphold subjectivity, contrary to neorealism. To his credit, however, he refrains from making direct comments about certain characters or situations. In a typical neorealism style, he does not provide any hints or suggestions that would influence the audience’s train of thought. There reason for this refrain is because neo-realists are predisposed not to their characters, but to the reality as it unfolds in the movies.

# Music’ Impact on Neorealism

Another aspect of neorealism, which is evident in Ray’s film, is the distinct lack of music. In most Bollywood videos, filmmakers incorporate Indians music to form a compelling soundtrack (Gooptu & Chakravarty 2013). Certainly, Ray was under the influence of Italian neorealism since he rejected the notion of adding background music, which many Indians consider as highly significant. Evidently, The Apu Trilogy, Ray’s previous creation, is a crucial aspect in Pather Panchali. For example, in one of the scenes, Durga and Apu, who are siblings, manage to escape poverty and indulge in the natural beauty of the surroundings (Ray 1994). This scene is a demonstration of the Italian neorealist influence in Bollywood. One of the striking features of neorealism movies is the depiction of the social realities such as poverty and deprivation. Ray demonstrates this aspect of neorealism by depicting Durga and Apu as existing in a perpetual cycle of deprivation and always looking for ways to improve their social conditions.

Ray also chooses the most natural locations for shooting Pather Panchali. Evidently, he wanted the backdrop of each scene to be self-explanatory to viewers, thus eliminating the need for a running commentary. Additionally, there is a deliberate refrain by Ray to indulge in the common exaggerated practices in most Bollywood films. According to Vasudevan (2012), Ray demonstrates some connections with the traditions and representations that prevailed in the earlier eras in an effort to reconcile with the traditional Indian identity. From Ray’s perspective, the popular compendium, which comprises of studio-scene shooting, melodrama, and artificial forms character representation are not acceptable in the context of neorealistic films. According to Ray (1994), such aspects of the movie would have undermined the plausibility and desirability of the film in the context of the regime of verisimilitude.